AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome—the late stage of infection caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
Antiretroviral therapy: treatment with drugs that inhibit HIV or other types of viruses called "retroviruses" from multiplying in the body.
Bilirubin: a product that results from the breakdown of hemoglobin. Total and direct bilirubin are usually measured to screen for or to monitor liver or gallbladder problems.
cART: "Combination Antiretroviral Therapy" is a type of combination therapy used to treat HIV infection, which typically uses three drugs from at least two different classes of drugs (for example, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors).
CD4+ cell (T cell): one of the types of cells that your immune system uses to protect your body from infection. HIV attacks these types of cells and uses them to make more copies of HIV. CD4+ cell counts are one way your doctor tests how your body and HIV drugs are fighting HIV. The higher the number of CD4+ cells, the stronger your immune system.
Clinical trial: a research study that tests the safety of and how well a drug works in humans.
Drug resistance: the mutation of an organism, such as HIV, in such a way that it changes its sensitivity to a drug. HIV drugs are often used in combination to prevent drug resistance.